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Saturday, July 25, 2020 | History

1 edition of Chemical mutagenesis in microorganisms and plants found in the catalog.

Chemical mutagenesis in microorganisms and plants

Chemical mutagenesis in microorganisms and plants

report of symposium held on July 25 to 26, 1972.

  • 182 Want to read
  • 16 Currently reading

Published by Institute of Radiation Breeding in Ibaraki-ken, Japan .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Chemical mutagenesis -- Congresses.,
  • Microbial mutation -- Congresses.,
  • Plant mutation -- Congresses.

  • Edition Notes

    SeriesGamma field symposia ;, no. 11
    ContributionsHōshasen Ikushujō.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsQH465.A1 C43
    The Physical Object
    Paginationiii, 96 p. :
    Number of Pages96
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL4579951M
    LC Control Number77152424

    Lethal mutagenesis, the killing of a microbial pathogen with a chemical mutagen, is a potential broad-spectrum antiviral treatment. It operates by raising the genomic mutation rate to the point that the deleterious load causes the population to decline. Its use has been limited to RNA viruses because of their high intrinsic mutation rates. chemical mutagenesis, explants and calli are treated with MNNG (80 mg l–l), EMS (%), NaN 2 (M) and N 2H 2 (M) (Bourhamont and Dubin ). EMS is generally used in a concentration range of to 1% whereas the range for nitroso-ethyl urea is to mM (Deane et al. ). Several factors including chemical and physical pro-.

    In the s, in addition to radiation muta-genesis, chemical mutagenesis in plants was initiated by M. S. Swaminathan at the Botany Division of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute.   By a process called chemical mutagenesis. They exposed wheat seeds to the chemical, sodium azide, NaN3. They exposed wheat seeds to the chemical, sodium azide, NaN3. Sodium azide is highly toxic to animals, bacteria, and humans, with human ingestion of small quantities yielding effects similar to cyanide.

    Mutation is a change in the genetic make-up (or DNA) of an organism. It is an inheritable alteration in the nucleotide sequence (or genome base sequence) of a living organism. Mutation can occur in both plant and animal cells, and it can be spontaneous (i.e. natural), prompted (or artificial), or adaptive in nature. When mutation occurs, there is usually a restructuring in the base sequence of. Nanomaterials in Plants, Algae and Microorganisms: Concepts and Controversies: Volume One discusses the vast amount of nanomaterials that have been released into the environment in a relatively short amount of time. There is a need to understand what the implications to the health of our biota and ecosystems are as the earth is increasingly inundated with these materials.


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Chemical mutagenesis in microorganisms and plants Download PDF EPUB FB2

Mutation breeding, sometimes referred to as "variation breeding", is the process of exposing seeds to chemicals or radiation in order to generate mutants with desirable traits to be bred with other created using mutagenesis are sometimes called mutagenic plants or mutagenic seeds.

From to more than mutagenic plant varieties were released that have been derived. Mutagenesis of polyploid plant species is difficult. Because most mutations are recessive, plants must be homozygous to display the trait.

Polyploid conditions can further complicate Chemical mutagenesis in microorganisms and plants book process of reaching homozygosity for the mutation, so must be selfed for additional generations to ensure presence of the mutation. Mutagenesis is an important step in the process of carcinogenesis, and its prevention is of great importance in preventing cancer.

There is increasing evidence that many phytochemicals, plants, and their compound formulations can act as inhibitors of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis [36,38,43,44]. Induced mutagenesis has also been proven to be a convenient tool for the identification of key regulatory genes and molecular mechanism involved in the trait development.

Conventionally, the induced mutagenesis is performed by means of physical, chemical, and insertional mutagen treatment methods. Mutagenesis / m juː t ə ˈ dʒ ɛ n ɪ s ɪ s / is a process by which the genetic information of an organism is changed, resulting in a may occur spontaneously in nature, or as a result of exposure to can also be achieved experimentally using laboratory procedures.

In molecular biology, mutagenesis is an important laboratory technique whereby DNA mutations are deliberately engineered to produce libraries of mutant genes, proteins, strains of bacteria, or other genetically modified various constituents of a gene, as well as its regulatory elements and its gene products, may be mutated so that the functioning of a genetic locus, process, or.

ch 7 induced mutagenesis in plants using p hysical and chemical agents to control this, and by maintaining the pH of the EMS solution at the optimal vale ofinjury to seeds and explants. This book presents contemporary information on mutagenesis in plants and its applications in plant breeding and research.

The topics are classified into sections focusing on the concepts, historical development and genetic basis of plant mutation breeding (chapters ); mutagens and induced mutagenesis (chapters ); mutation induction and. Using transposon mutagenesis and Southern hybridization, Bender et al.

(, ) demonstrated that COR biosynthetic genes are located in a 32‐kb region on a 90‐kb indigenous plasmid, designated pA in P. syringae pv. glycinea PG (Fig. 1).Mobilization of pA into two COR‐negative strains of P. syringae pv. syringae enabled these strains to synthesize COR.

Lipids in Plants and Microbes By J L Harwood and N Russell. pp George Allen & Unwin, London. £ or £ (paperback). ISBN or This relatively short book admirably describes the diversity of lipids within the plant and microbial (bacterial and fungal).

Induced Mutagenesis in Plants Using Physical and Chemical Agents. Chikelu Mba. Plant Breeding Unit, International Atomic Energy Agency, Laboratories Siebersdorf, Vienna International Centre, Vienna, Austria Book Author(s): Search for more papers by this author. Paul Anthony. Plant and Crop Sciences Division, School of Biosciences.

Chemical Mutagens: Singer and Kusmierek () have published an excellent review on chemical mutagenesis. Some of the chemical mutagens and mutagenesis are given in Tableand described below: i. Base Analogues: A base analogue is a chemical compound similar to. Using chemical mutagen (EMS) in Arabidopsis about ten mutations per gene were recorded among genes in 3, M 2 plants examined (Greene et al., ) with an average of mutations in single M 2 plant (Till et al., ).

Physical and chemical agents were employed in our laboratories to induce mutation in a variety of microorganisms used for production of antibioties or enzymes. Improved production strains ofPenicillium chrysogenum (penicillin-producer),Streptomyces griseus (streptomycin-producer),Streptomyces nodosus.

(amphotericin B-producer),Streptomyces noursei (nystatin-producer),Streptomyces umbrinus. has been done, initially on Drosophila and plants, subsequently on Neurospora, bacteria and viruses and more re'cently on mammalian cells.

Much of the work on chemical'mutagenesis has developed in association with attempts to use the s.o-called radiomimetic chemicals as effective inhibitors of cell division in malignant tissues. C10 Ion Implantation Mutagenesis and C11 Effects of Radiation on Living Cells and Plants C12 Chemical Mutagenesis C13 Sodium Azide as a Mutagen a, ko and ynski SECTION III.

(a) Chemical Mutagens. Chemical mutagens are. Nitrosoguanidine (NTG) Base Analogs (e.g. BrdU) Simple Chemicals (e.g. acids) Alkylating Agents (e.g. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU): These agents can mutate both replicating and non-replicating DNA.

In contrast, a base analog can only mutate the genetic material (DNA) when the analog is incorporated in replicating the DNA. Clostridium carboxidivorans (P7) is one of the most important solvent-producing bacteria capable of fermenting syngas (CO, CO2, and H2) to produce chemical commodities when grown as an autotroph.

This study aimed to develop ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced P7 mutants that were capable of growing in the presence of CO2 as a unique source of carbon with increased solvent formation and. The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria.

Can J Microbiol. ; – doi: /m [Google Scholar] Glick BR () Plant growth-promoting bacteria: mechanisms and applications. Scientifica [PMC free article] Glick BR. Bacteria with ACC deaminase can promote plant growth and help to feed the world.

Book: Chemical mutagenesis in mammals and man. + pp. Abstract: Although the title does not specifically state the fact, this book is principally concerned with some of the problems of environmental mutagenesis mutagenesis Subject Category: Miscellaneous.

Chemical mutagenesis provides an inexpensive and straightforward way to generate a high density of novel nucleotide diversity in the genomes of plants and animals.

Mutagenesis therefore can be used for functional genomic studies and also for plant breeding. The most commonly used chemical mutagen in plants is ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS).Chemical mutagenesis.

This chapter discusses the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents and other chemical mutagens (nitrous acid, nitric oxide, base analogues and related compounds, antibiotics, and intercalating agents and topoisomerase poisons) in plants.It was the use of microorganisms (fungal spores, bacteria, and bacterial viruses) to evaluate the effects of UV that propelled the fields of genetics, mutagenesis, and what would eventually be called DNA repair, by providing the initial evidence that nucleic acid, not protein, was the likely genetic material and that damage to it could be.